Anatomy & Physiology (First Semester)

(If you're thinking of taking this - or any - course with me, you should read the Course FAQ!)
Sites marked with an active student (<Interactive> ) include active learning exercises (e.g. electronic flashcards or a quiz).
Other sites are informative but not interactive (e.g. a dictionary or video).

One of the major "tricks" to this course is to be able to switch back and forth between verbal and visual mastery, and the way to do that is to have pictures or models with you as you study the verbal part, and to have review questions or the text handy as you study the visual part (so that you always study both together). Example: "The _____ is the largest bone in the lower appendages." The answer would be "femur," but if you can't PICTURE a femur in the lower appendage, you've just wasted an opportunity to practice a lab question.

Always useful links (pronunciation guides, whole-body sites, etc.):

The Khan Academy - A&P
Well - you surely know of them? They offer anatomy lectures, and can greatly enhance your learning. (Of course, this could be said of them for almost any subject.)
Merck Manuals - Medical Pronunciation Guide
Select any word to hear it spoken.
<Interactive> Pronunciation - Mastering the General Rules
Other pronunciation guides.
Read more about the rules of pronunciation, and find other sites that play audio.
<Interactive> WebAnatomy
This site offers a variety of activities for the entire body, classified by system. (Many of the individual exercises are linked to directly below, but this link to the entry page is provided for completeness and convenience.)
This site offers a variety of tutorials and activities for the entire body, classified by system.
<Interactive>Biodigital Human
Similar to Zygote Body (see below), this site allows 3D visualization of anatomical structures.

<Interactive>Zygote Body
This site allows you to find specific structures (try typing "atlas" in the search box) in either a male or female body, and to view them in 3D, turning them this way and that, so that you can learn to recognize them from all angles and see how they relate to surrounding structures. Not all structures are available, but many, many are. Be warned, however: know what you seek!
Note: if the controls on the left are too large to fit on your screen, press "CTRL-" (control key and minus sign, together).
The Anatomy Zone
A series of illustrated and animated lectures that will help you in your studies! Listed by topic.
Inner Anatomy
This is an online, interactive textbook; it's free (advertisements fund the company) and in the half-hour or so I spent reading over it, seems to be fairly comprehensive and correct. (Let me know if you find errors!)
<Interactive> WebAnatomy
All systems are represented.
This site has images for almost every structure in the human body. Just enter the name in the search box, or browse the A-Z list!
Gray's Anatomy
The complete 1918 edition, from Bartleby ... old, but as useful now as then.
The Anatomy Guy
The best way to use this site is to select the "alphabetical video list" from the "Home" tab. The site contains material intended for both entry-level and approaching-M.D. level students. If you view a video that is particularly helpful for undergraduate anatomy, please email me ( and I will mention it in future versions of this website. (This link was added: Sep 2011.)

Topic-specific Links

Language of Anatomy
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Self Tests [1] and [2]
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games
Chemistry Overview
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> Tonicity
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
<Interactive> Mathematics Skills
In medicine and science, math is as critical to success as language. (Why? See here:!) In particular, the ability to change from one set of units to another is required. These exercises can help you brush up on basic skills, if you need to do so. NOTE: I received the following email from a former A&PI student during the summer, 2011: "I just really want to say thank you making the math review a part of your A&P 1 class and for the link on your website. If I hadn't had those resources to refer to while taking Dosage this summer, the only 'dosages' I'd be concerned with would be my psych meds when I ended up in the booby hatch-lol!! Prior knowledge of the ratio-proportion method just about safeguarded my future."
Significant Figures
An excellent tutorial written by Stephen L. Morgan at the University of South Carolina.
Cell Overview
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
Life inside the cell (as well as a few other videos) from Harvard.
The genetic code.
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
Microscopy Handout (A review of the basics.)
McGraw-Hill's "Introduction to Tissues"
Be sure to visit the "Jet Track to Tissues" link on their page while you're there.
The Histology Learning Center
The appendices and "Common Confusions" sections are particularly nice.
The Virtual Slidebox
Practice microscopy online! You can select a tissue, view the entire slide, use your mouse to change your field of view (and thus, to search for the tissue type that you want to find on the slide), and change magnification.
The Histology Guide
T. Clark Brelje and Robert L. Sorenson have put together a fantastic histology website - well worth visiting!
The NYU School of Medicine's Slide Collection
The University of Michigan Medical School ...
Medical Histology and Virtual Microscopy Learning Resources from The University of Michigan Medical School
More online microscopy practice - try the WebScope.
Histology World
Histology at SIU SOM
Multiple slide collections ....
Still more online microscopy practice.
The Integumentary System
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games
National Geographic's "Skin"
Bones and Skeletal Tissue
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises

The Axial Skeleton
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Self Tests: [1] and [2]
WebAnatomy self-tests do not separate the axial and appendicular skeleton into two fields of study.
A good movie on the inner, diffiicult-to-view bones of the skull: is here.
<Interactive>Practice with skull structures!
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games

The Appendicular Skeleton
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Self Tests: [1] and [2]
WebAnatomy self-tests do not separate the axial and appendicular skeleton into two fields of study.
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games
Articulations (Joints)
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises

Muscle Tissue
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
Visit the fourth section on this page to study this topic.
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games
Microanatomy (Muscles - Sarcomeres)
A comparison of smooth and skeletal muscles: how are contractions activated?
Actin Myosin Crossbridge 3D Animation
This is an awesome animation of the molecular events surrounding a muscle contraction. Make sure you take the time to identify all the molecules involved (calcium, ATP, ADP + Pi, actin, myosin, etc.)! (It's not hard, there is a key to the right: but spend the time and effort, it's worth it!)
"How Muscles Work"
A nice article from "" which includes several useful animations.
Muscles - Prime Movers
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
The first three sections on this page allow study of this topic.
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games
<Interactive> Muscles Tutorial
This site features photographs of detailed muscle models. Guess the name of each muscle, then click the photo. The correct name is displayed when you click the image. (Site is hosted by Gateway Community College.)
LUMEN Master Muscle List 
This is a list of all the muscles. "Click" on any name to see a labeled illustration of the muscle, along with its origin, insertion, action, and the name of the innervating nerve. (Site is hosted by Loyala University Medical Education Network.)
Nervous Tissue
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
The first and last sections on this page will allow you to study this topic.
Action potentials, step by step. from the W.H. Freeman Co.
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
Visit the second section on this page to study this topic.
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games
<Interactive> National Geographic's "The Brain"
Includes a short quiz, but is primarily non-interactive.
<Interactive> Practice with some structures of the brain!
<Interactive> Neuroanatomy Tutorials
This site from the Maricopa Community College District allows you to practice identifying brains structures using sheep brain dissections or human brain models.
<Interactive> Labeled Views of the intact sheep brain
This site from the Bluegrass Community and Technical College includes a link to unlabeled images with which you can practice. The fornix isn't labeled in either version, but is shown in the previous link from Maricopa Community College District.
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> Practice with the cranial nerves!
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
Special Senses
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
Links to useful animations:
<Interactive> WebAnatomy's Self Tests
Visit the third section on this page to study this topic.
<Interactive>WebAnatomy's Single-Player Games

Endocrine System