Anatomy & Physiology (Second Semester)

If you're thinking of taking this - or any - course with me, you should read the Course FAQ!
Key: Sites marked with an active student (<Interactive> ) include active learning exercises (e.g. electronic flashcards or a quiz).

Other sites are informative but not interactive (e.g. a dictionary or video).

One of the major "tricks" to this course is to be able to switch back and forth between verbal and visual mastery, and the way to do that is to have pictures or models with you as you study the verbal part, and to have review questions or the text handy as you study the visual part (so that you always study both together). Example: "The _____ is the largest bone in the lower appendages." The answer would be "femur," but if you can't PICTURE a femur in the lower appendage, you've just wasted an opportunity to practice a lab question.

Always useful links (pronunciation guides, whole-body sites, etc.):

The Khan Academy - A&P
Well - you surely know of them? They offer anatomy lectures, and can greatly enhance your learning. (Of course, this could be said of them for almost any subject.)
Merck Manuals - Medical Pronunciation Guide
Select any word to hear it spoken.
<Interactive> Pronunciation - Mastering the General Rules
Other pronunciation guides.
Read more about the rules of pronunciation, and find other sites that play audio.
<Interactive> WebAnatomy
This site offers a variety of activities for the entire body, classified by system. (Many of the individual exercises are linked to directly below, but this link to the entry page is provided for completeness and convenience.)
This site offers a variety of tutorials and activities for the entire body, classified by system.
Similar to Zygote Body (see below), this site allows 3D visualization of anatomical structures.

This site allows you to find specific structures (try typing "atlas" in the search box) in either a male or female body, and to view them in 3D, turning them this way and that, so that you can learn to recognize them from all angles and see how they relate to surrounding structures. Not all structures are available, but many, many are. Be warned, however: know what you seek!
Note: if the controls on the left are too large to fit on your screen, press "CTRL-" (control key and minus sign, together).
The Anatomy Zone
A series of illustrated and animated lectures that will help you in your studies! Listed by topic.
Inner Anatomy
This is an online, interactive textbook; it's free (advertisements fund the company) and in the half-hour or so I spent reading over it, seems to be fairly comprehensive and correct. (Let me know if you find errors!)
<Interactive> WebAnatomy
All systems are represented.
This site has images for almost every structure in the human body. Just enter the name in the search box, or browse the A-Z list!
Gray's Anatomy
The complete 1918 edition, from Bartleby ... old, but as useful now as then.
Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy - A Functional Approach: Companion to Histology and Neuroanatomy: Second Edition
The Anatomy Guy
The best way to use this site is to select the "alphabetical video list" from the "Home" tab. The site contains material intended for both entry-level and approaching-M.D. level students. If you view a video that is particularly helpful for undergraduate anatomy, please email me ( and I will mention it in future versions of this website. (This link was added: Sep 2011.)

Topic Specific Links

<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
Microscopy Handout (A review of the basics.)
Slides which can be used to practice identifying blood cell types can be found here:
<Interactive> Blood Typing Practice
... from - an excellent interactive Flash game.

The Heart
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
Heart Dissection Guides
Blood flow in a beating heart
A good exercise: try to correlate each phase of the heartbeat with the cardiac cycle in your text (that is, the Wiggers diagram discussed in both class and lab).
Heart Sounds
There are no quizzes or tests in our course on this, other than stethoscope placement to hear the different valves - but interesting.
The Wiggers Diagram - explained.
The Heart's Electrical System
An excellent animation from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute showing the heart's eletrical system, and correlating it with the peaks of an EKG!

Blood Vessels
Note: this topic has several formulas which note that you should know them and also understand them. Here are some sample questions, based on those review questions.

The Lymphatic System
The Immune System
The Respiratory System
The Digestive System - Gross Anatomy
The Digestive System - Physiology (and Histology)
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
Histology Learning Center
The Histology Learning Center offers an in-depth resource for histology: this section is particularly relevant to this course. 
Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy - A Functional Approach: Companion to Histology and Neuroanatomy: Second Edition
    Section 10 of the atlast is relevant to this topic.
A list of other histology sites that may be useful is here:

<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
Interactive Menu Planner
Temporarily offline ,, but this is a useful part of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Obesity Education Initiative. When it's back online, try it - and spend a few minutes, at least, on the rest of the web site - interesting and educational and still available now!
USDA National Nutrient Database
Wondering how many calories (or how much protein, or fiber, etc.) are in something? Chances are you can find the answer here.
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises This site offers fantastic animations showing several complex cellular processes in an easy-to-understand visual format, including the ATP synthase and the electron transport chain in the mitochondria.

The Urinary System
<Interactive> Review Question Exercises
<Interactive> Kidneys
Patricia S. Bowne, in the biology department of  Alverno College (3400 S. 43rd St., Milwaukee WI. 53234) has put together some excellent interactive tutorials. I've not tried them all, but the "Kidneys" exercise in "Renal and Fluid Balance" is fantastic.

Fluid & Electrolytes


Meiosis Review & The Male Reproductive System
The Female Reproductive System